Collaborations & Publications

The Palmer Lab is involved in active collaborations with the following labs:

  • Natalie Ahn, CU Biochemistry, CU Biofrontiers Institute – Mass Spectrometry
  • Stephanie Bryant, CU Chemical and Biological Engineering – 3D Tissue Culture Models
  • Pascale Cossart, Institut Pasteur – Listeria Pathogenesis
  • Corrie Detweiler, CU Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology – Salmonella Infections in Mouse Models
  • Dorota Gryko, Polish Academy of Sciences Institute of Organic Chemistry – Synthesis of Organometallic Compounds
  • Ralph Jimenez, JILA, NIST, CU Chemistry – Optically Integrated Microfluidics
  • Kevin Jones, CU Molecular Cellular Developmental Biology – Calcium and Neurodegeneration
  • Leslie Leinwand, CU Molecular Cellular Developmental Biology, CU Biofrontiers Institute – Cardiomyocyte Biology
  • Rafael Piestun, CU Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, CU Department of Physics – Optical Radiation
  • Rotem Sorek, Weizmann Institute of Science – Microbial Genomics
  • Sabrina Spencer, CU Biochemistry – Cell Cycle Regulation
  • Alexis Templeton, CU Geological Sciences – Imaging Microbial Biofilms
  • Vladislav Verkusha, Albert Einstein College of Medicine – Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology – Fluorescent Protein Engineering
  • Adrie Von Bockhoven, UC Denver – Zinc in Prostate Cancer

The Palmer Lab is also associated with the following training programs and initiatives:

Palmer Lab Publications:

For most up to date list, click here.

85. Yu H, Rimbert A, Palmer AE, Toyohara T, Xia Y, Xia F, Ferreira LMR, Chen Z, Chen T, Loaiza N, Horwitz NB, Kacergis MC, Zhao L; BIOS Consortium, Soukas AA, Kuivenhoven JA, Kathiresan S, Cowan CA. GPR146 Deficiency Protects against Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis. Cell 2019, 179(6):1276-1288.

84. Sanford, L., Carpenter, M.C. & Palmer, A.E. Intracellular Zn2+ transients modulate global gene expression in dissociated rat hippocampal neurons. Scientific Reports 2019, 9(1):9411.

83. Slocum, J.D., Palmer, A.E. & Jimenez, R. Intramolecular Fluorescent Protein Association in a Class of Zinc FRET Sensors Leads to Increased Dynamic Range. J. Physical Chemistry B 2019, 123(14):3079-3085.

82. Nolin, E., Gans, S., Llamas, L., Bandyopadhyay, S., Brittain, S.M., Bernasconi-Elias, P., Carter, K.P., Loureiro, J.J., Thomas, J.R., Schirle, M., Yang, Y., Guo, N., Roma, G., Schuierer, S., Beibel, M., Lindeman, A., Sigoillot, F., Chen, A., Xie, K.X., Ho, S., Reece-Hoyes, J., Weihofen, W.A., Tyskiewicz, K., Hoepfner, D., McDonald, R.I., Guthrie, N., Dogra, A., Guo, H., Shao, J., Ding, J., Canham, S.M., Boynton, G., George, E.L., Kang, Z.B., Antczak, C., Porter, J.A., Wallace, O., Tallarico, J.A., Palmer, A.E., Jenkins, J.L., Jain, R.K., Bushell, S.M. & Fryer, C.J. Discovery of a ZIP7 inhibitor from a Notch pathway screen. Nature Chemical Biology 2019, 15(2):179-188.

81. Han, Y., Goldberg, J.M., Lippard, S.J. & Palmer, A.E. Superiority of SpiroZin2 Versus FluoZin-3 for monitoring vesicular Zn2+ allows tracking of lysosomal Zn2+ pools. Scientific Reports 2018, 8(1):15034.

80. Manna, P., Hung, S.T., Mukherjee, S., Friis, P., Simpson, D.M., Lo, M.N., Palmer, A.E. & Jimenez, R. Directed evolution of excited state lifetime and brightness in FusionRed using a microfluidic sorter. Integrative Biology : Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro 2018, 10(9):516-526.

79. Braselmann, E., Wierzba, A.J., Polaski, J.T., Chromiński, M., Holmes, Z.E., Hung, S.T., Batan, D., Wheeler, J.R., Parker, R., Jimenez, R., Gryko, D., Batey, R.T. & Palmer, A.E. A multicolor riboswitch-based platform for imaging of RNA in live mammalian cells. Nature Chemical Biology 2018, 14(10):964-971.

78. Batan, D., Braselmann, E., Minson, M., Nguyen, D.M.T., Cossart, P. & Palmer, A.E. A Multicolor Split-Fluorescent Protein Approach to Visualize Listeria Protein Secretion in Infection. Biophysical Journal 2018, 115(2):251-262.

77. Choi, S., Hu, Y.-M., Corkins, M.E., Palmer, A.E. & Bird, A.J. Zinc transporters belonging to the Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDF) family have complementary roles in transporting zinc out of the cytosol. PLoS Genetics 2018, 14(3):e1007262.

76. Young, A.M. & Palmer, A.E. Methods to illuminate the role of Salmonella effector proteins during infection: A review. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 2017, 7:363.

75. Carter, K.P., Carpenter, M.C., Fiedler, B., Jimenez, R. & Palmer, A.E. Critical comparison of FRET-sensor functionality in the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum and implications for quantification of ions. Analytical Chemistry 2017, 89(17):9601–9608.

74. Young, A.M., Minson, M., McQuate, S.E. & Palmer, A.E. Optimized fluorescence complementation platform for visualizing Salmonella effector proteins reveals distinctly different intracellular niches in different cell types. ACS Infectious Diseases 2017, 3(8):575-84.

73. Carpenter, M.C. & Palmer, A.E. Native and engineered sensors for Ca2+ and Zn2+: Lessons from calmodulin and MTF1. Essays in Biochemistry 2017, 61(2):237-43.

72. Lauinger, L., Li, J., Shostak, A., Cemel, I.A., Ha, N., Zhang, Y., Merkl, P.E., Obermeyer, S., Stankovic-Valentin, N., Schafmeier, T., Wever, W.J., Bowers, A.A., Carter, K.P., Palmer, A.E., Tschochner, H., Melchior, F., Deshaies, R.J., Brunner, M. & Diernfellner, A. Thiolutin is a zinc chelator that inhibits the Rpn11 and other JAMM metalloproteases. Nature Chemical Biology 2017, 13(7):709-14.

71. Sanford, L. & Palmer, A.E. Recent advances in development of genetically encoded fluorescent sensors. Methods in Enzymology 2017, 589:1-49.

70. Mo, G.C., Ross, B., Hertel, F., Manna, P., Yang, X., Greenwald, E., Booth, C., Plummer, A.M., Tenner, B., Chen, Z., Wang, Y., Kennedy, E.J., Cole, P.A., Fleming, K.G., Palmer, A., Jimenez, R., Xiao, J., Dedecker, P. & Zhang, J. Genetically encoded biosensors for visualizing live-cell biochemical activity at super-resolution. Nature Methods 2017, 14(4):427-34.

69. Li, J., Yakushi, T., Parlati, F., Mackinnon, A.L., Perez, C., Ma, Y., Carter, K.P., Colayco, S., Magnuson, G., Brown, B., Nguyen, K., Vasile, S., Suyama, E., Smith, L.H., Sergienko, E., Pinkerton, A.B., Chung, T.D.Y., Palmer, A.E., Pass, I., Hess, S., Cohen, S.M. & Deshaies, R.J. Capzimin is a potent and specific inhibitor of proteasome isopeptidase Rpn11. Nature Chemical Biology 2017, 13(5):486-93.

68. Fiedler, B.L., Van Buskirk, S., Carter, K.P., Qin, Y., Carpenter, M.C., Palmer, A.E. & Jimenez, R. Droplet microfluidic flow cytometer for sorting on transient cellular responses of genetically-encoded sensors. Analytical Chemistry 2017, 89(1):711-9.

67. Specht, E.A., Braselmann, E. & Palmer, A.E. A critical and comparative review of fluorescent tools for live-cell imaging. Annual Review of Physiology 2017, 79:93-117.

66. Rodriguez, E.A., Campbell, R.E., Lin, J.Y., Miyawaki, A., Palmer, A.E., Shu, X., Zhang, J. & Tsien, R.Y. The growing and glowing toolbox of fluorescent and photoactive proteins. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 2016, 42(2):111-29.

65. Qin, Y., Sammond, D.W., Braselmann, E., Carpenter, M.C. & Palmer, A.E. Development of an optical Zn2+ probe based on a single fluorescent protein. ACS Chemical Biology 2016, 11(10):2744-51.

64. Palmer, A.E. & Zhang, J. Roger Y. Tsien 1952-2016. Nature Chemical Biology 2016, 12(11):887.

63. Carpenter, M.C., Lo, M.N. & Palmer, A.E. Techniques for measuring cellular zinc. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 2016, 611:20-9.

62. McQuate, S.E., Young, A.M., Silva-Herzog, E., Bunker, E., Hernandez, M., de Chaumont, F., Liu, X., Detweiler, C.S. & Palmer, A.E. Long-term live cell imaging reveals new roles For Salmonella effector proteins SseG and SteA. Cellular Microbiology 2016, 19(1):e12641.

61. Carpenter, M.C. & Palmer, A.E. Unraveling the mystery of the ring: Tracking heme dynamics in living cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2016, 113(27):7296-7.

60. Dean, K.M., Davis, L.M., Lubbeck, J.L., Manna, P., Friis, P., Palmer, A.E. & Jimenez, R. High-speed multiparameter photophysical analyses of fluorophore libraries. Analytical Chemistry 2015, 87(10):5026-30.

59. Kim, T.-J., Joo, C., Seong, J., Vafabakhsh, R., Botvinick, E.L., Berns, M.W., Palmer, A.E., Wang, N., Ha, T., Jakobsson, E., Sun, J. & Wang, Y. Distinct mechanisms regulating mechanical force-induced Ca2+ signals at the plasma membrane and the ER in human MSCs. eLife 2015, 4:e04876.

58. Carter, K.P. & Palmer, A.E. Metallobiology: zinc differently. Nature Chemistry 2015, 7(2):96-7.

57. Park, J.G. & Palmer, A.E. Properties and use of genetically encoded FRET sensors for cytosolic and organellar Ca2+ measurements. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 2015, 2015(1):pdb.top066043.

56. Park, J.G. & Palmer, A.E. Measuring the in situ Kd of a genetically encoded Ca2+ sensor. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 2015, 2015(1):pdb.prot076554.

55. Park, J.G. & Palmer, A.E. Verifying the function and localization of genetically encoded Ca2+ sensors and converting FRET ratios to Ca2+ concentrations. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 2015, 2015(1):pdb.prot076547.

54. Dean, K.M., Lubbeck, J.L., Davis, L.M., Regmi, C.K., Chapagain, P.P., Gerstman, B.S., Jimenez, R. & Palmer, A.E. Microfluidics-based selection of red-fluorescent proteins with decreased rates of photobleaching. Integrative Biology : Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro 2014, 7(2):263-73.

53. Farnsworth, N.L., Mead, B.E., Antunez, L.R., Palmer, A.E. & Bryant, S.J. Ionic osmolytes and intracellular calcium regulate tissue production in chondrocytes cultured in a 3D charged hydrogel. Matrix Biology : Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 2014, 40:17-26.

52. Dean, K.M. & Palmer, A.E. Advances in fluorescence labeling strategies for dynamic cellular imaging. Nature Chemical Biology 2014, 10(7):512–23.

51. Carter, K.P., Young, A.M. & Palmer, A.E. Fluorescent sensors for measuring metal ions in living systems. Chemical Reviews 2014, 114(8):4564–601.

50. Park, J.G. & Palmer A.E. Quantitative measurement of Ca2+ and Zn2+ in mammalian cells using genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors. Methods in Molecular Biology 2013, 1071:29-47.

49. Stavru, F., Palmer, A.E., Wang, C., Youle, R.J. & Cossart, P. Atypical mitochondrial fission upon bacterial infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2013, 110(40):16003–8.

48. Qin, Y., Miranda, J.G., Stoddard, C.I., Dean, K.M., Galati, D.F. & Palmer, A.E. Direct comparison of a genetically encoded sensor and small molecule indicator: Implications for quantification of cytosolic Zn2+. ACS Chemical Biology 2013, 8(11):2366−71.

47. Davis, L.M., Lubbeck, J.L., Dean, K.M., Palmer, A.E. & Jimenez, R. Microfluidic cell sorter for use in developing red fluorescent proteins with improved photostability. Lab on a Chip 2013 13(12), 2320-7.

46. Jeong, J., Walker, J.M., Wang, F., Park, J.G., Palmer, A.E., Guita, C., Rohrbach, M., Steinmann, B. & Eide, D.J. Promotion of vesicular zinc efflux by Zip13 and its implications for spondylocheiro dysplastic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2012, 109(51):E3530-8.

45. Miranda, J.G., Weaver, A.L., Qin, Y., Park, J.G., Stoddard, C.I., Lin, M.Z. & Palmer, A.E. New alternately colored FRET sensors for simultaneous monitoring of Zn2+ in multiple cellular locations. PLoS ONE 2012, 7(11):e49371.

44. Geng, X., Huang, C., Qin, Y., McCombs, J.E., Yuan, Q., Harry, B.L., Palmer, A.E., Xia, N.S. & Xue, D. Hepatitits B virus X protein targets Bcl-2 proteins to increase intracellular calcium, required for virus replication and cell death induction.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2012, 109(45):18471-6.

43. Park, J.G., Qin, Y. Galati, D.F. & Palmer, A.E. New sensors for quantitative measurement of mitochondrial zinc(II). ACS Chemical Biology 2012, 7(10):1636-40.

42. Dean, K.M., Qin, Y. & Palmer, A.E. Visualizing metal ions in cells: An overview of analytical techniques, approaches, and probes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2012, 1823(9):1406-15.

41. West, D.C., Qin, Y., Peterson, Q.P., Thomas, D.L., Palchaudhuri, R., Morrison, K.C., Lucas, P.W., Palmer, A.E., Fan, T.M. & Hergenrother, P.J. Differential effects of procaspase-3 activating compounds in the induction of cancer cell death. Molecular Pharmaceutics 2012, 9(5):1425-34.

40. Lubbeck, J.L., Dean, K.M., Ma, H., Palmer, A.E. & Jimenez, R. Microfluidic flow cytometer for quantifying photobleaching of fluorescent proteins in cells. Analytical Chemistry 2012, 9(5):1425-34.

39. Ma, H., Gibson, E.A., Dittmer, P.J., Jimenez, R. & Palmer, A.E. High-throughput examination of FRET-detected metal ion response in mammalian cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134(5):2488-91.

38. Dean K.M., Lubbeck J.L., Binder J.K., Schwall L.R., Jimenez R & Palmer A.E. Analysis of red-fluorescent proteins provides insight into dark-state conversion and photodegradation. Biophysical Journal 2011, 101(4):961-9.

37. Qin, Y., Dittmer, P.J., Park, J.G., Jansen, K.B. & Palmer, A.E. Measuring Steady State and Dynamic ER and Golgi Zn2+ with Genetically Encoded Sensors. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 2011, 108(18):7351-6.

36. Palmer, A.E., Qin, Y., Park, J.G. & McCombs, J.E. Design and application of genetically encoded biosensors. Trends in Biotechnology 2011, 29(3):144-52.

35. Perocchi, F., Gohil, V.M., Girgis, H.S., Bao, X.R., McCombs, J.E., Palmer, A.E. & Mootha, V.K. MICU1 encodes a mitochondrial EF hand protein required for Ca(II) uptake. Nature 2010, 467(7313):291-6.

34. Ravier, M.A, Cheng-Xue, R., Palmer, A.E., Henquin, J.C. & Gilon, P. Subplasmalemmal Ca(2+) measurements in mouse pancreatic beta cells support the existence of an amplifying effect of glucose on insulin secretion. Diabetologia 2010, 53(9):1947-57.

33. Ong, D.S., Mu, T.W., Palmer, A.E. & Kelly, J.W. Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ increases enhance mutant glucocerebrosidase proteostasis. Nature Chemical Biology 2010, 6(6):424-32.

32. Palmer, A.E. & Dittmer, P.J. SNAP-shots of hydrogen peroxide in cells. Chemistry & Biology 2010, 17(4):318-9.

31. McCombs, J.E., Gibson, E.A. & Palmer, A.E. Using a genetically targeted sensor to investigate the role of presinillin-1 in ER Ca2+ levels and dynamics. Molecular Biosystems 2010, 6(9):1640-9.

30. Van Engelenburg, S.B. & Palmer, A.E. Imaging type-III secretion reveals dynamics and spatial segregation of Salmonella effectors. Nature Methods 2010 7(4):325-30. * This work was highlighted in the Nature Structural Molecular Biology

29. Van Engelenburg, S.B., Nahreini, T. & Palmer, A.E. FACS-based selection of tandem tetracysteine peptides with improved ReAsH brightness in live cells. Chembiochem 2010, 11(4):489-93.

28. Palmer, A.E. & Franz, K.J. Introduction to “cellular metal homeostasis and trafficking”. Chemical Reviews 2009, 109(10):4533-5.

27. Schafer, D., Gibson, E.A., Salim, E.A., Palmer, A.E. & Jimenez R. Microfluidic cell counter with embedded optical fibers fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation and anodic bonding. Optics Express 2009, 17(8):6068-73.

26. Dittmer, P.J., Miranda, J.G., Gorski, J.A. & Palmer, A.E. Genetically encoded sensors to elucidate spatial distribution of cellular zinc. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2009, 284(24):16289-97.

25. Palmer, A.E. Expanding the repertoire of fluorescent calcium sensors. ACS Chemical Biology 2009, 4(3):157-9.

24. McCombs, J.E. & Palmer, A.E. Measuring calcium dynamics in living cells with genetically encodable calcium indicators. Methods 2008, 46(3):152-9.

23. Wallace, D.J., Borgloh, S.M.z.A., Yang, Y., Bausen, M., Kugler, S., Palmer, A.E., Tsien, R.Y., Sprengel, R., Kerr, J.N.D., Denk, W. & Hasan, M.T. Single-spike detection in vitro and in vivo with a genetic Ca2+ sensor. Nature Methods 2008, 5(9):797-804.

22. Van Engelenburg, S.B. & Palmer, A.E. Quantification of real-time Salmonella effector type III secretion kinetics reveals differential secretion rates for SopE2 and SptP. Chemistry & Biology 2008, 15(6):619-28.

21. Xu, C., Xu, W., Palmer, A.E. & Reed, J.C. BI-1 regulates endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ downstream of Bcl-2-family proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2008, 283(17):11477-84.

20. Van Engelenburg, S.B. & Palmer, A.E. Fluorescent sensors of protein function. Current Opinion Chemical Biology 2008, 12(1):60-5.

19. Palmer, A.E. & Tsien, R. Y. Measuring calcium signaling using genetically targetable fluorescent indicators. Nature Protocols 2006, 1(2):1-9.

18. Palmer, A.E., Giacomello, M., Kortemme, T., Hires, S.A., Lev-Ram, V., Baker, D. & Tsien R.Y. Ca2+ indicators based on computationally-redesigned calmodulin-peptide pairs. Chemistry and Biology 2006, 13:521-530

17. Duman, J.G., Chen, L., Palmer A.E. & Hille, B. Contributions of intracellular compartments to calcium dynamics: Implicating an acidic store. Traffic 2006, 7:859-72.

16. Qunitanar, L., Yoon, J., Aznar, C.P., Palmer, A.E., Andersson, K.K., Britt, R.D. & Solomon, E.I. Spectroscopic and electronic structure studies of the trinuclear Cu cluster active site of the multicopper oxidase laccase: nature of its coordination unsaturation. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127(40):13832-45.

15. Palmer, A.E., Jin, C., Reed, J.C. & Tsien, R.Y. Bcl-2 mediated alterations in endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ analyzed with an improved genetically encoded fluorescent sensor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2004, 101(50):17404-9.* This work was highlighted in BioTechniques 2005, 38:1, p1 and Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 2005, 6, p92.

14. Shaner, N.C., Campbell, R.E., Steinbach, P.A., Giepmans, B.N.G., Palmer, A.E. & Tsien, R.Y. Improved monomeric red, orange, and yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein. Nature Biotechnology 2004, 22:1567-72.

13. Andersson, K.K., Schmidt, P.P., Katterle, B., Strand, K., Palmer, A.E., Lee, S.-K., Solomon, E.I., Graslund, A. & Barra, A.-L. Examples of high frequency EPR studies in bioinorganic chemistry. J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 2003, 8:235-47.

12. Palmer, A.E., Szilagyi, R.K., Cherry, J.R., Jones, A., Xu, F. & Solomon, E.I. Spectroscopic characterization of the Leu513His variant of fungal laccase: effect of increased axial ligand interaction on the geometric and electronic structure of the Type 1 Cu site. Inorganic Chemistry 2003, 42:4006-17.

11. Campbell, R.E., Tour, O., Palmer, A.E., Steinbach, P.A., Baird, G.S., Zacharias, D.A. & Tsien, R.Y. A monomeric red fluorescent protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2002, 99:7877-82.

10. Palmer, A.E., Quintanar, L., Severance, S., Wang, T.-P., Kosman, D.J. & Solomon, E.I. Spectroscopic characterization and O2 reactivity of the trinuclear Cu cluster of mutants of the multicopper oxidase Fet3p. Biochemistry 2002, 41:6438-48.

9. Palmer, A.E., Lee, S.K. & Solomon E. I. Decay of the peroxide intermediate in laccase: Reductive cleavage of the O-O bond. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123:6591-9.

8. Solomon, E.I., Chen, P., Lee, S.K., Metz, M. & Palmer, A.E. Oxygen binding, activation, and reduction to water by copper proteins. Angew. Chemie Int. Ed. 2001, 40(24):4570-90.

7. Machonkin, T.E., Quintanar, L., Palmer, A.E., Hassett, R.F., Severance, S., Kosman, D.J. & Solomon, E.I. Spectroscopic characterization of FET3p, a new member of the multicopper oxidase family. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123:5507-17.

6. Palmer, A.E., Randall, D.W., Xu, F. & Solomon, E.I. Spectroscopic studies and electronic structure description of the high potential type 1 copper site in fungal laccase: Insight into the effect of the axial ligand. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121:7138-49.

5. Xu, F., Palmer, A.E., Yaver, D.S., Berka, R.M., Gambetta, G.A., Brown, S.H. & Solomon, E.I. Targeted mutations in a Trametes villosa laccase: axial perturbations of the T1 copper. J. Biol. Chem. 1999, 274:12372-5.

4. Wilcox, D.E., Bennett, L.L., Cox, E.H., Haleblian, G., Hill, B.T., Kowack, E.P., Liu, X., Merkel, J.S., Palmer, A.E., Posewitz, M.C., Roy, J.F. & Wetterhahn, K.E. Interaction of metallothionein with carcinogenic metals Ni(II), Cr(VI), and As(III). In: Metallothionein IV. Ed: Klassen, C.D. 1999, Birkhauser: Basel, p 585-594.

3. Solomon, E.I., Palmer, A.E., Sundaram, U.M. & Machonkin, T.E. Spectroscopic studies of O2 intermediates in copper proteins: electronic structure contributions to function in bioinorganic chemistry. In: Spectroscopic Methods in Bioinorganic Chemistry. Eds: Solomon, E.I. and Hodgson, K.O. 1998, ACS: Washington, D.C., p 423-452.

2. Xu, F., Berka, R.M., Wahleithner, J.A., Nelson, B.A., Shuster, J.R., Brown, S.H., Palmer, A.E. & Solomon, E.I. Site directed mutations in fungal laccase: Effect on redox potential, activity, and pH profile. Biochemical J. 1998, 334:63-70

1. Bobilya, D. J., D’Amour, K., Palmer, A., Skeffington, C., Therrien, N. & Tibaduiza, E. C. Isolation and cultivation of porcine brain capillary endothelial cells as an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. Methods in Cell Science 1995, 17:25-32.